## Using none-standard font sizes

Subject: Create a fancy section heading layout

http://www.latex-community.org/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1510&p=6675

> the section number is too small (\Huge here), and when I try to change it to
> something bigger, using ex. \fontsize it doesn't work!

Just replace the \huge command with the following sequence.

\fontsize{36}{42}\selectfont

Don't forget to use the \textbackslash selectfont command to activate the new font size. The second argument of the \fontsize command is the interlinear space and should have about additional 20\% of the first value.

documented on: May 24, 2008, localghost

### Using none-standard font sizes

\fontsize{36}{42}\selectfont

which works fine. The problem is that I want an even bigger size, say 100 or something. The size doesn't seem to get any larger than 40.

— idaham

try the fix-cm package:

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}
\usepackage{fix-cm}
\begin{document}
\fontsize{100}{120}\selectfont Huge text
\end{document}

documented on: Jun 19, 2008, Stefan, LaTeX Community Moderator

### Using none-standard font sizes

> try the fix-cm package

Stefan, you're a lifesaver!

This worked perfectly! I don't know how long I've been trying to get it to work without success… Thank you so much! Cheers,

— idaham

You should get the desired result with any postscript font, too. Just try some font packages from the CTAN Catalogue. http://ctan.org/tex-archive/help/Catalogue/bytopic.html#fonts

documented on: Jun 19, 2008, localghost

## TeX font metric

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeX_font_metric

A TeX font metric, or TFM, is a font metric format used by TeX. Unlike outline font formats such as TrueType, a TFM provides only the information necessary to typeset the font: each character's width, height and depth. The actual glyphs are stored elsewhere. This is not unique to TeX; Adobe's AFM files and Windows' PFM files use the same technique.

TeX uses only TFM files to produce its output DVIs. The actual glyphs are inserted (from, for instance, METAFONT's PK packed fonts) by the eventual DVI output driver or previewer.

## LaTeX and fonts

http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/bibliog/latex/fonts.html

1. . .

TeX (or LaTeX) knows only the metrics of a font. The layout engine simply arranges the glyphs' bounding boxes in rows (lines of type).

But the post-processors that prepare the formatted page image for display on a terminal or printing on paper must be able to fill in the glyphs. Ultimately, that's done by breaking each glyph into arrays of little dots (like drops of ink from an injet printer): a bitmap.

However, to get the best result, the fonts should not be reduced to bitmaps until the final stages of display. For example, a computer terminal can display shades of gray, and so partly makes up for its poor resolution by shading the pixels that lie on the edge of a glyph — a process called anti-aliasing.

#### Resolution

A typical computer screen has about 100 dots per inch (dpi) these days. When text or graphics are displayed on the screen, that's the pixel density that is used to represent the glyphs you see.

On the other hand, printers typically have resolutions from 300 to 1200 dpi (or even more for commercial image-setters). The glyphs that represent the font characters have to be "rasterized" at the resolution of the printer.

This difference in resolution means that the actual representation of a font glyph in terms of dots is different on different output devices. But, to be portable, a formatted document must not depend on the resolution of the final output device; and TeX has no way to know the resolution of the device on which the document will be printed or displayed.

Hence, the output from the TeX compiler is a device-independent (DVI) file. It tells where each glyph goes, but says nothing about the representation of the glyph's shape as a two-dimensional array of dots — i.e., a bitmap.

So the glyphs that compose the text aren't present in the *.dvi file that LaTeX produces. It merely reserves space for them. But they must be present when the file is printed or displayed. The information about glyph shapes comes from font files.

1. . .

Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 Andrew T. Young

documented on: 2008-06-21

## Using Postscript fonts

http://tldp.org/HOWTO/TeTeX-HOWTO-7.html

*. . .*

One of the major improvements of LaTeX2e over its predecessor was the inclusion of the New Font Selection Scheme — called PSNFSS.

Formerly TeX font selection method provides precision but requires the skills of a type designer and mathematician to make good use of. Also, it's not very portable. If another system didn't have the specified font, somebody would have to re-code the fonts specifications for the entire document.

PSNFSS, however, allows you specify fonts by family (Computer Modern, URW Nimbus, Helvetica, Utopia, and so forth), weight (light, medium, bold), orientation (upright or oblique), face (Roman, Italic), and base point size. (See the section Characters and type styles for a description of the commands to specify typefaces.) Many fonts are packaged as families. For example, a Roman-type font may come packaged with a sans serif font, like Helvetica, and a monospaced font, like Courier. You, as the author of a LaTeX document, can specify an entire font family with one command.

There are, as I said, several high-quality font sets available in the public domain. One of them is Adobe Utopia. Another is Bitstream Charter. Both are commercial quality fonts which have been donated to the public domain. These happen to be two of my favorites.

The important thing to look for is files which have either the .pfa or .pfb extension. They indicate that these are the scalable fonts themselves, not simply the metrics files. Type 1 fonts use .pfm metric files, as opposed to the .tfm metric files which bit mapped fonts use. The two font sets I mentioned above are included in teTeX distributions, as well as separately.

If we want to use the Charter fonts in our document instead of Computer Modern bit mapped, all that is necessary is include the LaTeX statement

\renewcommand{\familydefault}{bch}

in the document preamble, where “bch” is the common designation for Bitstream Charter. The Charter fonts reside in the directory

/usr/lib/teTeX/texmf/fonts/type1/bitstrea/charter

There you'll see the .pfb files of the Charter fonts: bchb8a.pfb for Charter Bold, bchr8a.pfb for Charter Roman, bchbi8a.pfb for Charter Bold Italic. The “8a” in the font names indicates the character encoding.

*. . .*

documented on: 2008-06-21

## TeX and LaTeX font selection example

http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/euro-ce/

In TeX:

\font\euro=eurorm scaled \magstephalf       % 11-point roman euro symbol
\def\EUR{{\euro E}}
\EUR 123.00

\font\ce=cerm                               % 10-point CE symbol
{\ce CE}

In LaTeX:

\newfont{\euroit}{euroit scaled \magstep1}  % 12-point italic euro symbol
\newcommand{\EUR}{{\euroit E}}
\EUR 123.00

\newfont{\ce}{cerm}                         % 10-point CE symbol
{\ce CE}

version 3.0 (6 March 2002)

documented on: 2008-06-21

## Defining none-standard fonts

### How to get an arbitrary FONT SIZE

The standard fonts that LaTeX uses are bitmaps. These bitmapped fonts can, theoretically, be generated at any point size; however, this requires that you know how to run the font-generating program (metafont) and have enough space to store the bitmapped fonts that are generated. Generally, though, you'll just use the sizes that have already been created, and these are only in the standard (\large, \Huge, etc) sizes.

However, if you use a postscript font, you can use whatever size you want, since these are not stored as bitmaps anywhere, but instead generated at the right size internally on the printer. So, if you're using a postscript font (say, by specifying "timrom" or "newcen" in the documentstyle), you can use arbtrary sizes of these fonts, by just saying:

\newfont{\wayhuge}{t-rom scaled 10000}

Then, if you used

{\wayhuge Big}

you would get "Big" in 100pt Times Roman when you printed it.

http://www.aczoom.com/itrans/dvnc/node1.html

Since these are PostScript fonts, you can use them at any font size in your document. In fact, the font size must be specified when loading in the font. The following line was used for loading the font:

\newfont{\devnf}{dnh at 15pt}.

Even though this document has been typeset using a 11 point size, the devanagari font is loaded in at 15 point size.

2001-07-17 ITRANS

### Expressing Magnification in TeX

http://makingtexwork.sourceforge.net/mtw/ch05.html

Magnification can be expressed either implicitly or explicitly in TeX. Implicitly, magnification can be expressed by selecting a particular font at a particular size. For example, the following line defines the control sequence \big to be the Computer Modern Roman 10pt font at a size of 12pt (an implicit magnification of 120\%):

\font\big=cmr10 at 12pt

Explicit magnification is selected by requesting a font scaled to a particular extent. For example, the following line defines the control sequence \bigger to be the Computer Modern Roman 10pt font at a magnification of 144% (in other words, at 14.4pt):

\font\bigger=cmr10 scaled 1440

As you can see, TeX expects the scaled magnification to be ten times the percentage of magnification. The magnification that you request must be an integer (you can't say scaled 1440.4). Multiplying the magnification by 10 allows TeX to accept fractional percentages like 104.5%.

#### Standard Magnifications

TeX provides seven standard magnifications. There are several good reasons to use these magnifications whenever possible. The most important is that most TeX systems can easily print fonts at these sizes. As described later in the section "the section called "Printing Fonts"," TeX's ability to select any font at any magnification does not guarantee that it can be printed at that size. By using standard sizes, you increase the likelihood that your document will be printable on your system and on other TeX systems (if portability is an issue). Using standard sizes will also give consistency to your documents. If you write many documents separately that may eventually be collected together (as a collection of short stories or a series of technical reports, for example), the internal consistency of sizes will make them appear more uniform. Finally, the standard sizes have aesthetic characteristics as well. Each size is 1.2 times the preceding size. The geometric relationship between the sizes is designed to make them appear pleasing when mixed together.

The standard sizes can be selected with the \magstep control sequence. The standard sizes (or steps) are called magsteps in TeX jargon. The natural size of a font is its \magstep0 size. The \magstep1 size is 20% larger. And \magstep2 is 20% larger than that (44% larger than the original design), etc. To select the Computer Modern Roman 10pt font at its next largest standard size, use:

\font\larger=cmr10 scaled\magstep1

For those occasions when you want a font that is only a little bit larger, TeX includes the control sequence \magstephalf which is halfway between \magstep0 and \magstep1.

Most TeX formats that are based upon Plain TeX define seven magsteps: \magstep0, \magstephalf, and \magstep1 through \magstep5.

*. . .*

### Font Declarations in LaTeX

ftp://ftp.cs.stanford.edu/pub/tex/font-hints.txt

If you want to use a font that is not preloaded, you will need to declare it. If you already have a pk file, you can calculate from its name how to declare the font in several ways. First, you can figure what magstep it is at, and use that. For instance, to make "bigfont" be cmr10 at magstep5:

\newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 scaled \magstep 5}

You can also use the magnification, which you can calculate from the extension with the equation 5 * r / 1.5, where r is the resolution (e.g. 300 or 600 dpi). For example, if the largest cmr10 font is cmr10.746gf (i.e. \magstep5), then you can declare this font in TeX with:

\newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 scaled 2487}

Finally, you can declare it by the size at which it will print out, which you can calculate from the extension with the equation d * r / 300, where d is the design size (e.g. 10 or 12), and r is the resolution as previously. For example, you could also declare the same cmr10 font with:

\newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 at 24.866pt}

### re-size fonts

http://xoomer.alice.it/sam_psy/soft/my_latex_notes.pdf

You can also re-size fonts, for example the helvetica font looks better if scaled down a little bit, to do this:

\usepackage[scaled=0.92]{helvet}

To change the font type only for a portion of the document you can use the following command:

{\fontfamily{phv}\selectfont your text in the new font!} old font again

here the font family phv indicates the Helvetica font

documented on: 2008-06-21

## The New Font Selection Scheme

http://makingtexwork.sourceforge.net/mtw/ch05.html

The New Font Selection Scheme is a method for selecting fonts in Plain TeX and LaTeX.

The NFSS defines a method of font selection used in place of TeX's primitive \font command. The problem with font selection using \font is that it ties a control sequence to a particular font at a particular size, which has unpleasant consequences when more than one font is used in a document. Consider the definition \font\it=cmti10. This associates the control sequence \it with the italic Computer Modern font (at 10pt)… (which is might) not what you wanted. The NFSS overcomes this difficulty by describing each font with five independent parameters: encoding, family, series, shape, and size.

Font encoding

The encoding parameter identifies the encoding vector of the font. Encoding vectors play an important role in the selection of characters in a font. Encoding vectors are described more thoroughly later in this chapter. TeX Text, TeX Math Italic, and Adobe Standard are all encoding vectors.

Font family

The family parameter describes the typeface of the font. Computer Modern, Times Roman, Helvetica, Galliard, and Gill Sans are all families.

Font series

Font series describes the joint notions of weight and width. Weight is a measure of how darkly each character is printed, and width is a measure of how wide or narrow the font is. Standard abbreviations for weight and width are shown in Table Table 5.1. Normal, bold-compressed, extrabold-ultraexpanded, and light-medium are all examples of font series

Font shape

The shape, in conjunction with series, defines the appearance of the font. Shape generally refers to the style of the face. Bold, italic, slanted, and outline are all examples of font shape.

Font size

Font size defines both the size of the characters and the spacing between lines of text in that size. The distinction between design size and magnification, discussed at length in the first part of this chapter, is hidden within the NFSS; you need only select the size you want.[59]

The spacing between lines of text is described as the (vertical) distance between the baselines of two consecutive lines of type. It is usually about 20\% larger than the size of the font. For example, a 10pt font is usually printed with 12pts between the baselines of consecutive lines. The inter-line distance that looks best depends on the font and other design elements of the document. There really isn't a good rule for the value that looks best, which is why you have to specify it.

## LaTeX: Fonts

http://web.image.ufl.edu/help/latex/fonts.shtml

FIXME: typeset the tables

#### LaTeX Fonts

You will need to define your fonts at the beginning of any LaTeX document. After defining them, you'll only need to use font commands to change the font, for instance to bold or italicize a word or words.

In LaTeX, there are generally three styles within any font family, which are distinguished as font family, font shape, and font series. The commands for family, shape, and series are commutative, so they can be combined as with the command:

{\bfseries\itshape\sfffamily text you want in bold, italics, and sans-serif}

The above command would make the type in bold, italic, and sans-serif. The commands for font can only be combined as long as they aren't contradictory. Contradictory font commands would be trying to get slanted italics, or attempting to combine different font families.

LaTeX expects three font families as defaults. Font Family Code Command

For the common type shape and series commands, use the simplified syntax in the table below.

Type Style Command Example Italic \textit{words in italics} puts the words in the brackets in italics Slanted \textsl{words to be slanted} puts a few words in slanted type. Small Capitals \textsc{words to be in small capitals} puts the words in the brackets in small capitals Bold \textbf{words to be in bold} puts the words in brackets in bold Sans-serif \textsf{words to be in sans-serif} puts the words into sans-serif type Monospace \texttt{words to be in monospace} puts a few words in typewriter type Monospace {tt words} Monospaces all words within the curly braces. Italics {it words} Italicizes all words within the curly braces.

#### Font Size

Font size in LaTeX is controlled with font size commands. Please note that you will need to reset the font size with one of these commands after changing it. Also, note that certain commands may overrule the font size commands. If you want to select just some text for a size change, use the following commands in the bracket, command, bracket words, close bracket, sizes are listed in the table below.

Command     Nominal Point Size      Exact Point Size
\tiny       5       5
\scriptsize 7       7
\footnotesize       8       8
\small      9       9
\normalsize 10      10
\large      12      12
\Large      14      14.40
\LARGE      18      17.28
\huge       20      20.74
\Huge       24      24.88

#### Changing Fonts

If you use any packages that change the font, those packages will change the default of the same type. For instance, using the Bookman font (which is default Roman font Bookman, but leaves the sans-serif and monospace fonts alone. Similarly, using the Helvetica font (done with this command in the Helvetica, but leaves the Roman and Monospace fonts alone. When changing fonts, you can do so like this, using the command and calling the particular font, or you can change all of the default fonts at once with the following commands.

Command     Changes the defaults to
times       Times, Helvetica, Courier
pslatex     same as Times, but uses a specially narrowed Courier. This is preferred over Times because of the way it handles Courier.
newcent     New Century Schoolbook, Avant Garde, Courier
palatino    Palatino, Helevetica, Courier
palatcm     changes the Roman to Palatino only, but uses CM mathematics

For more on the fonts available with a typical LaTeX installation, please see the documentation in the IMAGE Lab (page 75 in A Beginner's Guide to Typsetting with LaTeX). Also, please note that there are many more fonts available for download.

#### Changing Fonts Temporarily

To change the font temporarily, first group the text where you want the font changed in curly braces. Then, use the commands \fontencoding, \fontfamily, and \selectfont. These commands should be used immediately inside the opening curly braces, like:

{\fontfamily{phv}\selectfont Helvetica looks like this}
and {\fontencoding{OT1}\fontfamily{ppl} Palatino looks like this}.
}

The above commands would make a sentence where "Helvetica looks like this" would be in the Helvetica font (phv is the code for Helvetica) and "and" would be in the default font and "Palatino looks like this" would be in the Palatino font (denoted with the Palatino code, which is ppl). This example would be very rare, but it shows how the fonts can be changed in the most extreme circumstances.

#### Font Color

Using the color package (which must be called in the Preamble), you can typeset LaTeX in any color. To add the color package in the Preamble, use the command:

\usepackage{color}

The color package makes a default color package available. The colors available with this are: red, green, and blue (for screen display) and cyan, magenta, and yellow (to go with black for the CMYK color model for printing). To make a single word or phrase in color, use the command:

\textcolor{color}{words to be in color}

For more on color and how to use 255 colors, please see the documentation in the IMAGE Lab.

Updated Monday, 07-Feb-2005

documented on: 2008-06-21

## Available Fonts for TeX

http://www.nso.edu/general/computing/TeX/local/general/local-html/fonts.html

Two categories of fonts are available for use with TeX at Sac Peak. Metafont fonts are fonts specifically designed to be used with TeX. In addition to the Metafont fonts, it is also possible to use some PostScript fonts with TeX.

### Metafont Fonts

Metafont is used to design fonts for TeX. Each font has one or more Metafont source files which are used to create a TeX font metric (tfm) file that is used by TeX during document layout and a packed font (pk) file which is used by xdvi or DVIPS to actually render the font for previewing or for printing. Metafont fonts are usually designed to be rendered at a specific point size (this is changing for the more commonly used fonts) and the pk files are created for specific types of output devices (e.g. HP LaserJet printers).

There are a large number of Metafont fonts available. The Metafont FAQ contains a list of all currently available Metafont fonts. The names of Metafont fonts are generally composed of three parts: the family name, the type of font, and the point size of the font. The family name is typically a simple abbreviation of two or more letters. For example, cm is the abbreviation for the Computer Modern font family. The nomenclature used for the designation of the font type is much more complicated, usually being a combination of a font description along with character width and weight designations. A possibly complete listing of the font type abbreviations for the font families available at Sac Peak is below.

b       bold
bf      bold
bsy     bold symbols
bx      bold expanded
bxsl    bold expanded slanted
bxti    bold expanded text italic
csc     caps and small caps
sc      caps and small caps
d       demi-bold
dunh    dunhill
ex      math extension
ff      funny font
fi      funny font italic
fib     Fibonacci
i       italic
inch    inch high sans serif
m       medium
mi      math italic
mib     math italic bold
r       regular
sdc     sans serif caps and digits
ssdc    sans serif caps and digits
sl      slanted
slc     slanted condensed
sltt    slanted typewriter
ss      sans serif
ssbx    sans serif bold extended
ssi     sans serif italic
ssq     sans serif quotation
ssqi    sans serif quotation slanted
sy      symbols
tcsc    TeX caps and small caps
tex     TeX extension
ti      text italic
tt      typewriter
u       upright slanted
vtt     variable width typewriter

Thus a font name of cmbxsl10 corresponds to Computer Modern bold extended slanted at 10 points. A brief description of the currently available font families is below.

#### Fonts in the Public Domain

• cc — Concrete Roman. A font family created for Donald Knuth's book Concrete Mathematics.

• cm — Computer Modern. TeX documents are created using Computer Modern fonts by default.

• ocm — Computer Modern Outline. Outline fonts for a subset of the Computer Modern font family.

• punk — Punk A font appropriate for writing graffiti on walls.

#### American Mathematical Society Fonts

The American Mathematical Society has compiled a large collection of fonts for use in AMS publications. A detailed description of these fonts and how to use them with TeX and LaTeX can be found in the User's Guide to AMSFonts.

• eu — Euler Fonts. With assistance and encouragement by Donald Knuth, Hermann Zapf was commissioned to create designs for a Fraktur (German) font family (euf), a script font family (eus), and a “Roman” cursive font family (eur) that would represent a mathematician's handwriting on a blackboard. Donald Knuth added an extension font (euex) while he was writing Concrete Mathematics.

• cm — Additional Computer Modern math fonts.

• ms — Extra Math symbols. Two series of extra math symbols. The first series (msam) contains medium weight symbols. The second series (msbm) contains Blackboard Bold symbols.

• wncy — Cyrillic Fonts. A font family created by the University of Washington for typesetting in Russian and other Slavic languages.

#### European Computer Modern Fonts

The European Computer Modern Font families are 256 character Computer Modern fonts containing built in support for typesetting in many different languages and thus contain many new characters. The naming convention for these fonts are somewhat different than for the rest of the Metafont fonts. The first two letters denote the encoding of the font. The current encodings are dc (which will evolve to ec for European Computer modern within a year or so) and tc for text companion fonts. The next letters denote the family, shape and series attributes of the font, as listed below.

b       bold
bi      bold extended italic
bl      bold extended slanted
bm      bold roman
bx      bold extended
cc      caps and small caps
ci      classical serif italic
dh      dunhill
ff      funny font
fi      funny font italic
fb      Fibonacci
it      italic typewriter
r       roman
si      sans serif inclined
sl      slanted
so      sans serif bold extended oblique (slanted)
ss      sans serif
ssdc    sans serif demi-bold condensed
st      slanted typewriter
sq      sans serif quotation
qi      sans serif quotation inclined
sx      sans serif bold extended
tc      typewriter caps and small caps
ti      text italic
tt      typewriter
u       upright slanted
vt      variable width typewriter

Finally, the final four digits are the design size of the font in hundredths of a point (e.g. 1440 denotes 14.40 points). More complete documentation and instructions on how to use these fonts can be found in The European Computer Modern Fonts -Documentation-.

### PostScript Fonts

A set of common PostScript fonts, built into most PostScript printers, are available for use with TeX and LaTeX. If you are contemplating using PostScript fonts in a LaTeX document, I recommend you read Notes on setup of PostScript fonts for LaTeX2e. The naming of the fonts and is described in excruciating detail in Filenames for fonts. A listing of the available PostScript typefaces is below. It should be noted that all of the text fonts listed here are encoded with the Cork Encoding, compatible with the font encoding of the European Computer Modern Fonts.

• pnc — Adobe New Century Schoolbook.

• pzc — Adobe Zapf Chancery.

• pzd — Adobe Zapf Dingbats.

Last updated on 7 June 1996 Craig Gullixson

documented on: 2008-06-21

## Font HOWTO - TeX / LaTeX

### 9.1 A Quick Primer on LaTeX/TeX fonts

Adding fonts to TeX and LaTeX is a somewhat complex procedure. However, like a lot of things, it's easy if you know how to do it. Some fonts are distributed in metafont format, and some in Type1 format. Usually, the Type1 formats are more easily available. However, metafont fonts have the distinct advantage that they can adjust their shape at different sizes, while Type1 and TrueType fonts at different point sizes are simply magnified or reduced versions of precisely the same shape. The main reason why this feature is desirable is that ideally, fonts should be ( relatively ) wider at smaller sizes and narrower at larger sizes.

For this discussion, we focus on Type1 fonts, since they are more widely available, and more problematic to install.

Here's a quick primer on LaTeX fonts. LaTeX uses the following types of font files for handling Type1 fonts:

• .pl — property list. This is a human readable version of a tex font metric file.

• .vpl — virtual property list. Human readable version of a virtual font file.

• .fd — font definition. Used to define a family of fonts.

• .tfm — tex font metric. This is a metric file, as explained in the glossary. It is completely analogous to the .afm files used by Type1 fonts. TeX needs the font metrics to properly layout the page.

• .vf — virtual font. These files contain encoding details, and act as interpreters. TeX treats them as fonts. For example, Imagine that there's some wacky font foobar-exp.pfb which consists of a few ( say 20 ) alternate characters, and there's a virtual font which uses a few of these alternate characters ( and it gets the rest of the characters from font foobar.pfb ). Dvips might say “I want character 65 of virtual font foo.vf”. Dvips knows that 65 is always an “a” in TeX's scheme. Then the virtual font maps TeX's request to a request for character 14 of the Type1 font foobar.pfb ( which might be the alternate “a” in the Type1 font foobar.pfb ). The virtual font mechanism is very flexible and allows fonts to be constructed from many different font files. This is useful when using fonts such as adobe's “expert” fonts.

• .pk — a device dependent bitmap font. These are usually constructed on an as-needed basis ( they are renderings of Type1 and metafont fonts ). They are typically high resolution ( about 300-1200dpi ), and are intended to be rendered on a printer. Because of their high resolution, and the fact that each point size of each font requires a .pk file, they require a lot of disk space, so they are cached, but not stored.

• .mf — metafont files. Metafont is a graphics programming language widely used for font design ( though it can also be used for graphics ). It has many advantages over TrueType and Type1 schemes. However, it's main weakness is that it is not as ubiquitous as TrueType or Type1 ( and it is also not terribly well suited to WYSIWYG publishing. Of course, this isn't a major disadvantage when TeX is your typesetting system. )

It's good to know your way around the TeX directory structure. Here are the main directories you'll need to know about:

• $TEXMF/fonts — the main font directory •$TEXMF/fonts/type1 — the type1 font directory

• $TEXMF/fonts/type1/foundry — the directory for the shape files in a given foundry •$TEXMF/fonts/type1/foundry/fontname — contains the font called name. The name is usually plain English, and needn't follow TeX's cryptic naming scheme for fonts.

• $TEXMF/fonts/afm/foundry/fontname — the directory containing the afm files corresponding to the font name belonging to foundry foundry. •$TEXMF/fonts/tfm/foundry/fontname — analogous to the afm directory, but contains tfm files instead.

• $TEXMF/fonts/vf/foundry/fontname — similar to the above, but contains the virtual fonts. •$TEXMF/fonts/source/foundry/fontname — similar to the above, but contains metafont files.

• $TEXMF/dvips/config/psfonts.map — fontmap file for dvips. This file is similar in both function and format to ghostscript's Fontmap file. •$TEXMF/tex/latex/psnfss — this is where all the font definition files go.

#### Naming the fonts

First, you need to appropriately name your fonts. See the fontinst documentation on your system for instructions on how to name fonts ( it should be fontinst subdirectory of the directory containing your tetex documentation ). To make a long story very short, the naming scheme is

• F is a one-letter abbreviation for the foundry ( m = monotype, p = adobe, b = bitstream, f = free )

• N is a two letter abbreviation for the font name ( for example, ag = “avant garde” )

• W is the font weight ( r = regular, b = bold, l = light d = demibold )

• V is an optional slope variant ( i = italic , o = oblique )

• E is an abbreviation for the encoding ( almost always 8a which is adobe standard encoding ).

• N is an optional width variant ( n = narrow )

#### Creating the virtual fonts and tex font metrics

Now you can run fontinst as follows:

latex kpsewhich fontinst.sty

then you type at the prompt:

\latinfamily{font_name}{}\bye

where font_name is the first three letters of your font file name ( for example, pad for adobe garamond ). Now fontinst will generate a number of files — font description files, property list files and virtual property list files. It also generates a lot of .mtx files. These are created by fontinst, but you don't need to use them. You need to convert the property lists and virtual property lists to metrics and virtual fonts. This is done using the utilities vptovf and pltotf.

for X in *.pl; do pltotf $X; done for X in *.vpl; do vptovf$X; done

Then remove the old vpl, pl and mtx files.

#### Configure dvips

You will need to edit your dvips config file, psfonts.map. The best way to explain the format of the file is to give an example.

marr8r          ArialMT <8r.enc <farr8a.pfa
marbi8r         Arial_BoldItalicMT <8r.enc <farbi8a.pfa
marb8r          Arial_BoldMT <8r.enc <farb8a.pfa
marri8r         Arial_ItalicMT <8r.enc <farri8a.pfa
marr8rn         Arial_Narrow <8r.enc <farr8an.pfa

The 8r.enc is simply there to inform dvips of the encoding scheme used ( in all our examples, it's 8r, because of the way fontinst constructs the virtual fonts ). The leftmost column is the font name TeX uses. The second column is the real name of the font, which is hardcoded into the font file ( this name can be deduced by opening the afm file in a text editor, and looking for the FontName directive ). The last column is the filename of the shape file corresponding with the font. It is not necessary to provide a directory path — tex knows where to look.

#### Test the font

Try running latex on a document like this:

\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
\usefont{T1}{pga}{m}{n}\selectfont
\huge
Testing a new font \dots the quick red fox jumped over the lazy brown dogs
\end{document}

where you replace pga with the outline of your font. If this works, you are almost done. All you have to do now is put all the files in the right directories ( as explained in the primer ), then run

texconfig rehash

so that tex can update the directory lists.

#### Create a .sty file

You may want to create a .sty file so that you can more easily use fonts. Use the files in \$TEXMF/tex/latex/psnfss as a template.

documented on: 2006.04.23

## TeX Font Guide

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
Date: 1999/12/24
>   David Wright at the University of Zurich prepared an excellent,
> multi-page, Web-based guide to installing fonts in TeX and LaTeX. I
> bookmarked the site a couple of weeks ago, but didn't print the pages at
> that time.
>   Today, I tried to access the site, but it's no longer there.

See my homepage www.forkosh.com

and click on the "PS Font Guide" link. The "(download)" link next to it points to a zipped file containing everything. It's an exact reproduction of David Wright's stuff.

John (forkosh@panix.com)

## How to define a fontsize (12pt)

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
Date: 1995/06/05
>I have to write an article, using a 10pt font.
>
>The title has to be 16pt high and another line neede a 12pt font.

Knuth's fonts typically go up in size from 10pt by factors of 1.2 per step (there's also often a sqrt(1.2) step which is just < 1.1).

Thus most TeX-based packages offer 10pt, 12pt, 14.4pt and 17.28pt sizes as a matter of course.

>Usinf the commands ?large and ?Large, I don't know how big these fonts
>will be.

In a 10pt document, \large is 12pt, \Large is 14.4pt and \LARGE is 17.28pt; 16pt doesn't (of course, given the above) figure.

>Is there any way to define a special fontsize?

In LaTeX2e (you don't say what you're using), the size selection against the list of sizes defined to be available in the .fd file for the font (though if you're using a PostScript built-in font, the allowed range is continuous).

If you're using one of Knuth's fonts, you've rather more excitement on your hands: compare OT1cmr.fd (for example) with the command documentation in fntguide.tex (part of the distribution).

Robin

### How to define a fontsize (12pt)

> (Robin Fairbairns) wrote:
>
> RF>for your 16pt font, you should say \fontsize{16}{20}
>                                                    ^^
> You better try \fontsize{16}{20pt}.

Without some glue to insert between lines when needed, TeX deos not work at its better…

Maurizio Loreti

## changing font size in 2e

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
Date: 1995/12/15
>you have to experiment.  But allow TeX to adjust in some way that
>space, please, from page to page, with a little bit of glue:
>\fontsize{9pt}{11pt plus 0.2pt minus 0.1pt}

Horrors! No! :-) From Knuth, The TeXbook, page 78: "When you are typesetting a document that spans several pages, it's generally best to define \baselineskip^ so that it cannot stretch or shrink, because that will give more uniformity to pages. A small variation in the distance between baselines---say only half a point---can make a substantial difference in the appearence of the type, since it significantly affects the proportion of white to black."

^(\baselineskip is the primative TeX parameter that is ultimately set by the second argument to \fontsize.)

I might add that _any_ stretch component to \baselineskip could, in principle, allow arbitrary amount of stretching.

Usually, stretchability is added to a page through \parskip glue (space between paragraphs), space around certain environments, space above and below titles, or (in raggedbottom typesetting) at the bottom of the page. The LaTeX default appears to follow Knuth and seem to include no stretch or shrink components in \baselineskip.

Dan Luecking

## Font size definitions

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
>     I'd like to redefine the font sizes, maybe by overriding the LaTeX
> definitions, to use something like (default: 10pt):
>
> \LARGE: 16pt  (default 17pt)

From size.clo copy

\makeatletter
\newcommand\scriptsize{\@setfontsize\scriptsize\@viipt\@viiipt}
\newcommand\tiny{\@setfontsize\tiny\@vpt\@vipt}
\newcommand\large{\@setfontsize\large\@xiipt{14}}
\newcommand\Large{\@setfontsize\Large\@xivpt{18}}
\newcommand\LARGE{\@setfontsize\LARGE\@xviipt{22}}
\newcommand\huge{\@setfontsize\huge\@xxpt{25}}
\newcommand\Huge{\@setfontsize\Huge\@xxvpt{30}}
\makeatother


Then change the values after e.g. \Large. The first (the roman looking) is the fontsize, the second the \baselineskip. You could look at size11.clo and size12.clo for examples for your requested fontsizes.

Ulrike Fischer

## sans serif

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> 1. I need to write some text with sans serif font.
> When I use \textsf{1} the output doesn't look
> sans serif, in the sence that the character 1
> still have the bar under it, like that:
>  .
> /|
>  |
>  |
> ---
>  .
> /|
>  |
>  |
> Someone knows a way around this problem?
> Do I have to install a different font?

You might want to use Helvetica, by writing in your preamble:

\usepackage{helvet}

Udo Zallmann

## Changing font in LaTeX

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> Now here is a question. Let say I have Type 1 font bookman. What would be a
> exact syntax to make all text in the document to be bookman?

What's do you mean by "I have Type 1 font bookman"? If you say that you have all the files at the right place, and that you have the bookman package, then

\usepackage{bookman}

That's all

### Changing font in LaTeX

> Another one, what if you want to have multiple fonts?
> How do you switch between them?

You have to do it by hand.

Once per installation, setup fonts  tfm  font tables (TeX & dvips). This can be a faff if you don't be careful. Try reading Hoenig (TeX Unbound), it did it for me.

...
\def\rmdefault{pr3}
Hello world.
...
%%eof

Then if everthing is setup ok, you get it set in pr3 (Rotis Semi-Sans).

Simon Dales

## strikethrough and cancellations

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> Is there any LaTeX command (or package) that implements a "strikethrough" or
> cancellation font attribute?
>
> For instance, if I have something like \frac{2}{2}, I would like to input
> this as \frac{\S{2}}{\S{2}}, where \S puts a forward slash on top of its
> argument, to show a cancellation. It's probably possible to do something
> with boxes but it would be ideal if there was a command that did this
> automatically (so that the spacing and size of the slash could be
> controlled).

I've never used it myself, but I think the "cancel" package on CTAN is supposed to do that.

Scott

## diagonaled text

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> How to write text, tables, etc. accross diagonal or rotate its to some
> angle?

I think that using slashbox and/or pstricks will do what you want.

Rupert

### diagonaled text

Use \rotatebox'

\rotatebox{45}{Some Text}

from the graphicx package…

Rolf Niepraschk

## A 'delightful' font

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
>I want to give the examples in my thesis a 'delightful' font. I
>mean, a font that can speak "this is not as serious as the thesis"
>by itself.

Interesting---I think a more normative way to describe such a style would be “informal”, e.g. Eaglefeather Informal, or “casual”, e.g. Lucida Casual.

>But my limited knowledge of Tex didn't help me too much. E.g.,
>\textit make it confusing from quotes and \textsf looks too
>heavy. That's why I think a delightful font will help. But I don't
>know how. Anybody can help me with it? Thanks

You're using Computer Modern? There's

• CM Funny Roman, cmff10---kinda like Dom Casual or more like sorry, name's not quite kicking in…. may be a bit much though

• CM Funny Italic, cmfi10---this might be more workable, it's not backslanted like Funny Roman is…

• CM Italic Typewriter, cmitt10---this would look serious enough that it wouldn't through off a “stuffy” thesis advisor…

• CM Unslanted Text Italic, cmu10---ditto, color may be a bit more even.

The only other CM font which might meet your spec would be CM Dunhill, cmdunh10, but I can't bring myself to recommend it---forget I mentioned it.

### A 'delightful' font

>Thanks, Will

Sure! anytime.

>Now I have to figure out how to use those fonts in Latex. None of

I think the Blue Sky Research Computer Modern font archive on CTAN has a sample document which shows how to use these fonts---I culled them from a printout of such a document included with the NeXT packaging of the Type 1 fonts.

William

## Font for thesis

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> I am currently writing my thesis in the field of digital signal
> processing. Does anybody have a good suggestion for a font I should
> use? What is usually used for publications in that field?

Presumably you have a fair amount of math to typeset. This limits your options considerably. Are you willing to pay for fonts? Then look at the offerings of MicroPress and YandY. If not, your choices are limited to Computer Modern, Times (txfonts) and Palatino (mathpazo, pxfonts). Times is more popular than Palatino for works with math, but the latter has a more relaxed appearance that you might find appealing. The free fonts are available from CTAN.

Bob T.

## Next step in Tex font using

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex

Recently, I rambled over the inet from FAQ pages trying to figure out the ways to go further from using the default \text?? fonts. I found that those FAQs assumes some basic knowledge that I don't have, so I haven't been able to put all puzzles into a big picture yet. So I'm just wondering:

What would you suggest to a newbie if he wants to wander further in the Tex world and try to use more fonts to beautify the output. What are the easy steps for him to take off? where are the valuable web pages that can give him a hand? … so on, and finally, after his success with the first easy step, are there any other options (ie, more difficult ones) out there for him to conquer if he is really ambitious…

### Next step in Tex font using

"TeX Unbound" by Alan Hoenig has lots of material on setting up new fonts with TeX.

Book details: ISBN 0-19-509686-X [paperback] Oxford University Press, 1998.

Regards

Graham Douglas

### Next step in Tex font using

See The LaTeX Graphics Companion' Michel Goosens, Sebastian Rahtz, Frank Mittelbach Addison-Wesley, 1997 ISBN 0-201-85469-4

http://www.YandY.com/acrobat5.htm

## Type 1 CM fonts

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> I have seen a reference to the Computer Modern fonts being
> available in Adobe Type-1 format.  Are these freely available,
> and if so, where are they?

At CTAN:

fonts/cm/ps-type1/bluesky
fonts/amsfonts/ps-type1

or at

http://www.ams.org/tex/type1-fonts.html

Bob T.

## Why anything but Type 1?

Newsgroups: comp.text.tex
> >If I recall correctly, someone somewhere sometime posted a link to a
> >MetaFont-to-Type3 *vector* converter. Type3 fonts, IIRC, can contain
> >arbitrary PS commands, and can thus be used in vector formats as
> >well.

this is something metapost should be able to do. The script you mention is mf2pt3 (CTAN:fonts/utilities/mf2pt3/).

> Is there a dvips variant that can use this MetaFont-to-vectors
> convertor?  That would be so cool.

any dvips version will do. Simply give a name to T3 fonts that _do not_ end with pfa or pfb, or load them as headers and declare them resident in the .map.

Thierry Bouche